Sony Xperia ION and smartwatch

After months of anticipation and waiting, Sony has recently taken the wraps off its next generation handsets in India. The brand has officially launched their latest high-end smartphone, the Xperia ion into the Indian market along with the much awaited Sony SmartWatch. The smartphone manufacturer has priced these devices at Rs. 36,999 and Rs. 6,299 respectively.

 

 

Sony Xperia Ion

Sony Xperia Ion

 
The Xperia Ion was first announced way back at the Consumer Electronics Show held in Las Vegas earlier this year. The Xperia ion is designed to fit in to the current trend of smartphones bearing large displays – 4.6-inch (LCD) screen with a resolution of 1280 x 720 pixels. However, as feature packed as this one may be, it packs in a 1.5GHz dual-core processor and an Adreno 220 GPU. In the time of the Quad Core mobile processor though, the ion seems a little under powered. The primary camera is rated at 12MP and is capable of 1080p video recording. The device is also equipped with a 1.3MP front-facing camera for video conferencing at 720p resolution. Its 1900mAh battery should ensure plenty of usage time and battery backup that’s dualy suited for the handset considering its hardware specs.

 

 

The Xperia ion will also ship with Sony’s Tarzan charger with QuickCharge abilities that provides an hours worth of usage with a mere 15 minutes of charging. As of now, this rapid charger currently ships with only the Ion and will be made available for purchase for other handsets later this year and with upcoming devices. The handset also features the Walkman player and is also a PlayStation certified smartphone.

 

Commenting on the launch of the Xperia ion, Prasun Kumar, Marketing Head, Sony Mobile Communications said, “With Xperia ion, we’re bringing together a seamless experience across the multiple screens that we use to play, watch, listen, and share. Xperia ion is the gateway to HD entertainment when and – most importantly – where you want it. We are glad to see overwhelming customer response for our Xperia range and we thank them for supporting us unconditionally on this successful journey in India. We strongly believe that the consumer will like the Xperia  ion’s HD entertainment experience which has exclusive Airtel data offer to enhance the smartphone experience.”

 

The rear of the recently announced Xperia ion

The rear of the recently announced Xperia ion

 
Here is a quick look at the highlighted features of the Xperia ion:

 

  • 4.6-inch TFT LCD supporting 1280 x 720 pixel resolution
  • 3G HSDPA 2100, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Hotspot, DLNA, USB 2.0
  • Bluetooth 2.1 with A2DP and EDR, USB 2.0, NFC
  • GPS, A-GPS with GLONASS
  • 12MP camera and 1.3MP front camera
  • FM radio with 3.5 mm audio jack
  • 1GB RAM, 16GB internal memory, external memory support up to 32GB
  • HDMI (micro)

 

The other major announcement at the event was the announcemnet of the Sony SmartWatch for India. Sony’s latest accessory for its smartphones has been doing the rounds abroad and according to the company – gaining quite a bit of mementum. Sony has decided to launch the SmartWatch in India now and aims to keep the price “as competitive as possible.” The watch features an OLED colour display that will be avilable with different colour straps, so you can match it to your personality. More importantly, it syncs with your Android phone and lets you read messages, emails, calendar reminders as well as receive social networking updates from Twitter and Facebook. You can even reject and mute calls or accept them through a Bluetooth headset.

According to Sony, the SmartWatch is not designed to be compatible with handsets other than their own, but that could change at a later stage. The syncing is done over Bluetooth 3.0. The device can be charged via a proprietary port placed just under the clip. You will also be able to download compatible apps from the Google Play store. The main unit weighs about 15g. We still don’t know it the watch is waterproof like a standard watch although it seemed quite sturdy.
The other handsets that were showcased at the event were the Xperia neo L and the Xperia go.

Sony Xperia go

Sony Xperia go

 
Here’s a quick look at the main features of the Xperia go:

  • 3.5-inch Reality Display powered by Mobile BRAVIA Engine for sharp clarity
  • 5MP fast capture camera goes from sleep to snap in just over a second
  • Scratch resistant mineral glass display with wet finger tracking
  • Dust and water resistant
  • 1Ghz dual core processor
  • Launching on Android 2.3 (Gingerbread), upgradeable to Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)
  • Available in black, white and yellow colours
Sony Xperia neo L

Sony Xperia neo L

 
The highlighted features of the Xperia neo L are:

  • 4.0-inch TFT touchscreen with a 480 x 854 pixel resolution
  • 1GHz Qualcomm MSM8255 processor, 512MB of RAM
  • Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich
  • 1GB internal storage
  • 3G, EDGE/GPRS, Wi-Fi
  • GPS with A-GPS support
  • Bluetooth 2.1 with A2DP, USB 2.0
  • 5 megapixel camera with LED flash, 720p video recording
  • Secondary VGA camera
  • Memory expandable up to 32GB via microSD card
  • 3.5 mm handsfree socket
  • 1500 mAh Lithium – ion battery

All consumers of these Xperia handsets will also receive 50GB of online storage via Box which is free for life. All these handsets come equipped with fast image capture capabilities, X-Loud VPT (Virtual Phone Technology) and Clear Bass Stereo.
Sony Xperia go (stay tuned for the review) is available for Rs. 19,949. The brand has priced the Xperia neo L at Rs. 19,449, which is just about the same price as it’s predecessor the Neo V (that specs-wise had just a smaller display).

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Kawasaki Ninja 650 R

Overview of Kawasaki Ninja 650R

Kawasaki India has launched the 2013 Ninja 650R in India and it is for sure that it is the best bike in its segment in comparison to Suzuki and Honda who are also planning to launch their 600cc+ bikes in India. Kawasaki Ninja 650R is priced at Rs. 4.99 lakhs (Ex-showroom New Delhi) and Rs. 5.04 lakhs (On-Road Mumbai), which seems to be very competitive considering the fact that it is a 650cc liquid cooled bike. The Kawasaki Ninja 650R costs less in Mumbai, than in Delhi, as the bike is assembled in the Maharashtra, saving the customer logistics costs. It is for sure that it will be a huge success because it is the best looking 650cc bike in comparison to other bikes in this segment.

Fast Facts About Kawasaki Ninja 650R

  • It costs less in Mumbai because it is assembled in the Maharashtra, saving the customer logistics costs.
  • Is available in only one shade – Lime Green
  • Engine is 4-stroke, liquid cooled, DOHC
  • Maximum power is 71 Bhp at 8500 rpm
  • Maximum torque is 65.68 at 7000 rpm
  • Will be sold through through ProBiking centres

Engine of Kawasaki Ninja 650R

The 2013 Kawasaki Ninja 650R is powered by a 4 stroke, liquid-cooled, DOHC, four-valve per cylinder, parallel twin engine that comes with 649cc of displacement. This awesome power-train does develop a maximum power of 71 Bhp at 8500 rpm and generates a top torque of 65.68 Nm at 7000 rpm. The new fuel injection and explosion settings on this torque engine are cautiously selected to improve bottom-end torque, smooth low-mid rpm response and allow it to rev more quickly.

Shades available in Kawasaki Ninja 650R

Kawasaki Ninja 650R 2013 is available in only one shade: – Lime Green

Technical Highlights of Kawasaki Ninja 650R

  • Liquid-cooled, DOHC, 8-valve fuel injected twin cylinder delivers smooth, responsive performance, especially in the low to medium rpm range
  • Excellent mid-range power, exceptional roll-on response and impressive passing performance make even commuter traffic enjoyable
  • Minimal vibration via a 180° crankshaft driven balancer shaft, which in turn drives the water pump
  • Oil jets on the connecting rod big ends spray oil on the undersides of the pistons to aid cooling
  • Lightweight plug-mounted ignition coils deliver a hot spark and save space
  • High-capacity radiator for increased cooling efficiency
  • Coolant routing travels directly to the engine cases, then follows internal passages to the cylinder and head for minimum external plumbing and a simplified cooling system
  • Fuel injection settings boosts the engine’s bottom-end torque while letting it rev quicker
  • Sub-throttle valve equipped 38mm Keihin throttle bodies offer optimum performance and ride ability
  • Located behind the main throttle valves, the sub-throttles are controlled by the DFI® system’s ECU for a precise throttle response, similar to a constant-velocity carburetor
  • Auto-fast idle system simplifies starting and helps ensure that the catalyzer reaches optimum temperature quickly
  • Lightweight fuel pump mounted inside the fuel tank
  • Powerful twin-cylinder engine is the most compact in its category, which helps reduce the dimension of the entire motorcycle and allows use of a slim, minimalist frame
  • Triangular setup of the crankshaft and transmission shafts makes the engine short front-to-back
  • Transmission input shaft, output shaft and change drum are contained in a “cassette”-style package that allows a compact layout and eases transmission maintenance chores
  • Semi-dry sump design reduces engine height
  • Plated, liner-less aluminum cylinders with a narrow cylinder pitch keep the engine light and slim
  • Efficient fuel injection and a three-way catalyzer inside the exhaust produce very low emissions, able to pass the stringent Euro-III emission regulations
  • 300-cell catalyzer is compact and light
  • Under-engine muffler placement for mass centralization and a low center of gravity

What’s New in 2013 Kawasaki Ninja 650R

  • Redesigned twin-pipe perimeter frame offers proper rigidity, stable handling, a low seat height and improved aesthetics
  • Twin-pipe swingarm assembly offers improved rigidity and maximum style
  • Redesigned exhaust system features a new connector pipe, a higher-volume 3-chamber muffler assembly for improved mid-range while maintaining peak top-end power, and a higher quality finish
  • Redesigned bodywork features better aerodynamics, improved engine-heat dissipation and sharper looks that identify with the flagship ZX™-14R
  • Easier-pull clutch cable design for reduced fatigue and enhanced control
  • Revised suspension settings and increased wheel travel front and rear offer improved ride comfort while offering excellent compliance in varying situations
  • Improved brake pads offer better braking performance and control
    New instrument cluster assembly features an analog tachometer and a digital readout module for at-a-glance information transfer to the rider
  • 20mm wider handlebar offers improved rider comfort and control
  • All-new multi-function instrumentation includes a fuel gauge, digital speedometer, clock, odometer, dual trip meters, economical riding (ECO) indicator, and an analog tachometer above the LCD info-pod
    Redesigned 2-piece seat assembly features thicker and wider foam for improved comfort for rider and passenger
  • Dunlop’s grippy yet durable Roadsmart II tires are standard
    Increased fuel capacity and more compact battery
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Nokia to launch Windows 8 Lumia on Sept 5

Nokia to launch Windows 8 Lumia on Sept 5.

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Super Cool Gadgets of 2012

7 Super Cool Gadgets of 2012 that Made a Mark

Till date 2012 has indeed been the year of gadgets. Right from tablets, to smartphones, to note books and ultrabooks, name it and the gadget was launched this year.  Here is a list of seven hot and intriguing gadgets of the present year. Let’s have a look at them.

1. Samsung Galaxy S III

Price:  RS.40,000 approximately


With crossing the 10 million sales of handsets, Samsung’s Galaxy S III has sure given the major smartphone manufacturing companies like Apple and HTC a few heart attacks. This smartphone has single handedly changed the face and market value of the smartphone.


The 4.8 inch superAMOLED touch screen comes with Corning Gorilla Glass thus making it strong and scratch resistant. It runs on Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich operating system which is most likely to get an update to Android 4.1 Jelly Bean operating system. The smartphone is powered by a 1.4 GHz quad-core processor and backed by a 1 GB RAMThe phone comes with an 8 mega pixel rear camera with auto focus and a LED flash, and a 1.9 mega pixel front facing camera which enables video calling. The phone also comes with 50 GB free storage on Dropbox.

 2. Apple new iPad

 Price: Between 30,500 to 50,900

The new iPAd from Apple comes with a retina display screen which makes it different from its predecessor, the iPad2. Apple has also improved the graphic cards in the new tablet so that it can support the retina display. It comes with the new A5X chip with quad core graphics. The camera in this tablet is a 5 mega pixel iSight one and comes with 1080 pixels for HD video recording.


The tablet comes in two colour variants white and black. The 16 GB model is available for 30,500 and the 32GB model costs 36,500 and finally the 64 GB model comes at a price of 42,500.


Off late Apple has slashed its price of its iPad 2 in many markets across the world, some say that it is because of they wanted to reduce the internal competition that iPad 3 might have on the new Retina Display iPad.

 

3. Google Nexus 7

Price:  Between  13,000 to 15,000

Termed by some gadgets freaks to be the “iPad killer” the Google Nexus 7 ever since the day it was launched has been successful in turning heads and getting noticed in the already overcrowded budget tablet market. This tablet is also a direct competition to Amazon’s Kindle. The tablet is one of the first few tablets to run on Android 4.1 Jelly Bean operating system.


The Google Nexus 7 has a 7 inch screen and comes with an admirable resolution of 1280 X 800 pixels.  The screen also has an IPS LCD which allows the view with comfortable viewing angles. The tablet is powered by a quad-core Tegra 3 processor which comes with a promise of high speed performance. The only glaring drawback that the budget tablet has is that it is missing a rear camera, which comes as quiet a shocker as many tablets in the same price range come with both a front end as well as a rear facing camera.

4.Nokia 808 PureView

Price: 37,000 Approximately

Well what do you call a smartphone that comes with equipped with an ambitious 41 mega pixels rear camera? Well it is called Nokia 808 PureView. No you don’t have to pinch yourself and your eyes aren’t playing tricks on you. This is the first smartphone with a camera of such specifications. The camera comes with Carl Zeiss optics, auto focus and a Xenon flash.


Well the smartphone isn’t all about the camera only. The phone has a 4.0 inch AMOLED ClearBlack Display touch screen and is powered by a 1.3 GHz processor which is backed by a 512 MB RAM. The phone has a screen resolution of 1,280 X 720 pixels.

The operating system though proves to be a slight disappointment and we wonder why Nokia didn’t opt for a Windows Phone operating system instead of the Symbian operating system.  The main bottom line about the phone is its camera which is definitely worth the buy!

 5.Microsoft Surface

Price:  15,000  Approximately

Slim is in! This has indeed been the motto in the gadget world this year. The tablet from Microsoft is super slim and ultra portable. Surface comes with a 10.6 inch touch screen.  The resolution of the screen is 1920 X 1080 pixels which is definitely very respectable and will produce smart and clear images. The Surface also comes with something different – The Kickstand – which allows the user to position the tablet according to his comfort and view the screen with maximum comfort.

The Microsoft Surface has two memory variants; 32 GB and 64 GB and the Surface Pro comes in 64 GB and 128 GB.

The Microsoft Surface is powered by an ARM processor and its sister Surface Pro is powered by a dual-core Intel i5 processor.

Another attraction of this tablet is its colorful detachable key boards that you get to pair with it. They come in pretty bright colours like pink, blue orange and sober white.

 

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8 Must-Know Facts about Windows on ARM

Windows 8 ARM Release :

With the availability of internet everyone has their own opinion to post their views online. Same was the case with Microsoft’s Windows on ARM. Earlier this year Microsoft announced the development on Windows which was designed to run on ARM chips. ARM was chosen because of its characteristics of being to combine long battery life with power and performance.

Since the day of the announcements there have been continued speculations as to what Windows on ARM can and can’t do. Windows Chief Steven Sinofsky has put an end to the speculations and provided a lot of details on his blog regarding the Microsoft’s plans for Windows on ARM (WoA) for tablets and PCs.

 

1.  Windows 8 Desktop
Windows 8 operating system has been developed as a touch Metro interface. But for those who like the traditional look and feel there isn’t anything to worry about. The user has the option of switching over to the traditional and familiar Windows Explorer desktop.  This option of switching between the two is available all the time so that you can access it when you want or need it.

 

2. Out in the Market

According to the announcement that was made on 29th February, at the Windows 8 Consumer Preview both the Windows on ARM systems and Windows 8 for x86 will be out in the market at the same time. If everything goes as per the plan they will be out in the market towards the end of this year.

 

3.The Chipmakers
Qualcomm, Nvidia and Texas Instruments have been chosen as the three silicon vendors by Microsoft to work on ARM system-on-a-chip (SOC) packages for the Windows 8 tablets and PCs.

4. No to Linux Support

The user can only use only the pre-installed Windows on the tablets and PCs. This is due to ARM’s technical restrictions; user will not be able to run anything but a Windows 8 on the tablet. There is no option of dual booting with any other operating system.  This means that the user will not be able to use Linux or any other operating system.

 

5. Windows Won’t Standalone

All the previous versions of Windows were available to be purchased of the shelf, but Windows 8 on ARM will not have the option of being sold as boxed software. It will only come pre-installed on tablets and PCs. Further updates for the operating system will be available through Windows updates.

 

6. Preinstalled Apps

Even the apps available will come preinstalled or through downloads from the Windows App Store. The reason given was that a closed loop would be created and this would allow Microsoft to ensure that quality and a consistent user experience could be maintained for the user. This is another feature that Microsoft has adopted from Apple.

 

7. A combined Store

Along with Merto-style Windows on ARM apps, consumers will also be able to buy 86 apps from the Windows Store. The store will have apps and services for both ARM and x86/64 available in the store.

 

8. Office is the Answer

As known all along, Microsoft’s Windows on ARM and the PCs have been pitched as direct competition to Android and Apple products. Microsoft with its Windows promises the users for entertainment along with media options without sacrificing the productivity. “WoA will be a no-compromise product for people who want to have the full benefits of familiar Office productivity software and compatibility,” said Sinofksy.

 

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Windows 8 OS: 8 New Must-Know Facts

Microsoft is pitching Windows 8 as the most radical redesign of its franchise operating system since Windows 95, which saw the introduction of now-familiar features such as the Start button, Explorer file manager, and Task Bar.

8 Tablets That Will Run Windows 8 Now

The Explorer interface still will be an option for Windows 8 desktop users, but for tablets it will be all Metro, all the time. Here’s a look at some key new features in Windows 8.

  1. Dolby support. Audiophiles and gamers will appreciate the fact that Microsoft has tapped Dolby Laboratories to provide immersive audio on Windows 8 PCs and tablets. Under a deal announced Thursday, Windows 8 systems–both x86 and ARM–will feature Dolby Digital Plus, which lets you play Dolby-enabled content. Among other things, it means Windows 8 systems will be able to output 5.1 channel audio to home theater systems from Blu-ray discs and other media.
  2. No DVD Playback. Although Microsoft is boosting Windows 8 audio capabilities with Dolby, it’s cutting other multimedia features by stripping DVD playback from Windows Media Player. The company says it’s because most media is now consumed from online sources such as YouTube and Hulu, so the cost of supporting all the codecs needed for DVD playback is no longer worth it. Instead, users can turn to a number of Windows-compatible, third-party tools on the market.
  3. Windows Media Center goes pay-to-play. Similarly, Windows Media Center, which lets you record and play back video and audio from broadcast TV and other sources, will no longer be offered as an included part of Windows. Users will have the option of purchasing either the Windows 8 Media Center Pack or the Windows 8 Pro Pack if they want access to Media Center. Microsoft has yet to announce pricing, but said it will be “in line with marginal costs.
  4. SkyDrive included. With Windows 8, Microsoft taketh away (see above), but it also giveth. All Windows 8 devices, as well as future versions of Windows Phones, will automatically connect users to a free SkyDrive account as soon as they log in. Microsoft sees cloud storage as the backbone of a strategy under which it wants to deliver a consistent experience across PCs, tablets, and smartphones. The idea is to give users access to all their data and services, regardless of which device they are using, via the cloud.
  5. Family Safety first. Microsoft’s Family Safety app allows parents to monitor their kids’ online usage, filter content, and block certain sites. Previously part of the Windows Live Essentials add-on pack, it had to be downloaded and installed manually. With Windows 8, Family Safety is now a built-in feature that will run automatically, based on parents’ settings.
  6. Nook e-Reader. With Microsoft’s $300 million investment in a new Barnes & Noble digital spin-off, the bookseller has committed to producing an e-reader app for Windows 8 tablets. This will give Windows 8 tablet users access to BarnesandNoble.com’s inventory of more than 1 million titles, as well as a large selection of Netflix movies, TV shows, and other content. There is also speculation that Microsoft’s partnership with Barnes & Noble might eventually yield Nooks that run Windows 8 (currently they run the Android OS), although there’s been no confirmation of that from either company.
  7. Windows Live dead. Microsoft said it plans to discontinue Windows Live, a catch-all brand name that the company used to refer to a wide range of desktop and Internet services that it admitted was confusing to customers. Microsoft tacked the Live brand onto several disparate services, including authentication (Windows Live ID), storage (Live Mesh and Windows Live Mesh), and e-mail (Windows Live Mail). With Windows 8, authentication services will be known simply as Microsoft account; storage services will fall under the SkyDrive brand; e-mail will be called Mail; and contacts and messaging will fall under the People and messaging apps, respectively.
  8. Windows 8 Release Preview. Microsoft has added some new nomenclature to its pre-release offerings. Past versions of Windows have seen Developer Previews and Public Betas. Windows 8, in addition to the previously released Consumer Preview, will be available as a “Release Preview” starting next month. Microsoft says it’s a nearly finished version of the operating system, which suggests the final product might be ready to ship as early as this fall.
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4G Technology .. On the Go..

Lets see How does this 4-G technology survive beating its Junior generations 3G and 2G.. Probably Lets do not expect any scam to happen in India with 4G since it happened with 2G 😉 Famous Scam  …

4G is short forFourth (4th) Generation Technology4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. But at this time nobody exactly knows the true 4G definition. Some people say that 4G technology is the future technologies that are mostly in their maturity period. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. If the Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia sub-system movement achieves what it going to do, nothing of this possibly will matter. WiMAX or mobile structural design will become progressively more translucent, and therefore the acceptance of several architectures by a particular network operator ever more common.

Many Technologies appear in many different flavours and have many diverse tags attached to them, but that does not really indicate that they are moving in dissimilar tracks. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS, OFDM, SDR, TD-SCDMA, MIMO and WiMAX to the some extent.

 4G Technology offers high data rates that will generate new trends for the market and prospects for established as well as for new telecommunication businesses. 4G networks, when tied together with mobile phones with in-built higher resolution digital cameras and also High Definition capabilities will facilitate video blogs.

After successful implementation, 4G technology is likely to enable ubiquitous computing, that will simultaneously connects to numerous high date speed networks offers faultless handoffs all over the geographical regions. Many network operators possibly utilize technologies for example; wireless mesh networks and cognitive radio network to guarantee secure connection & competently allocates equally network traffic and bandwidth.

Some of the companies trying 4G mobile communication at 100 Mbps for mobile users and up to 1 Gbps over fixed stations. They planned on publicly launching their first commercial wireless network around 2010. As far as other competitor’s mobile communication companies working on 4G technology even more quickly. Sprint Nextel was planned to launch WiMAX over 4G broadband mobile network in United States. Some of the other developed countries like United Kingdom stated a plan to sale via auction of 4G mobile frequencies couple of years back. The word “MAGIC” also refers to 4G technology which stands for Mobile multimedia, Any-where, Global mobility solutions over, Integrated wireless and Customized services.

There are different types of wireless networks defined on the basis of their size, range and data transfer rate.

·         Wireless PAN – Personal area network Wireless Personal Area Networks
·         Wireless LAN – Local Area Network
·         Wireless MAN – Metropolitan Area Networks
·         Wireless WAN- Wide Area Networks
·         Mobile devices networks
Why 4G?

·                3G may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing.
·                  Multiple standards for 3G make it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks
·                  Requirement of a single broadband network with high data rates which integrates wireless LANs, Bluetooth, cellular networks, etc
4G – Also known as “Beyond 3G”, 4G refers to the fourth generation of wireless communications. The deployment of 4G networks should be in the 2010-2015 timeframe and will enable another leap in wireless data-rate and spectral efficiency. ITU has specified IMT-A (IMT-Advanced) for 4G standards.
4G is all about convergence; convergence of wired and wireless networks, wireless technologies including GSM, wireless LAN, and Bluetooth as well as computers, consumer electronics, communication technology and several others. 4G is a Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service network system
4G wireless technology is also referred to by “MAGIC” which stands for Mobile multimedia, Any-where, Global mobility solutions over, integrated wireless and Customized services. 4G Technology architecture
4G is an all IP-based integrated system will be capable to provide 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility , with end-to-end QoS and high security, and will offering various services at any time as per user requirements, anywhere with seamless interoperability, at affordable cost. The user services include IP telephony, ultra-broadband Internet access, gaming services and High Definition Television (HDTV) streamed multimedia.
4G Requirements – As per ITU’s IMT-A
·                     All-IP packet switched network.
·                     Data rates up to 100 Mbps for high mobility and up to 1 Gbps for low mobility.
·                     Seamless connectivity and global roaming
·                     Interoperability with existing wireless standards
·                     Smooth handovers.
·                     High QoS.
Key Components & Technologies in 4G

MIMO – OFDM
MIMO, in contrast to traditional communication systems, takes advantage of multipath propagation to increase throughput, range/coverage, and reliability. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems use spatial multiplexing, wherein multiple transmitting antennas and multiple receiving antennas are used. It permits pparallel streams to be transmitted simultaneously by those antennas. Because MIMO transmits multiple signals across the communications channel,
Data rate in MIMO systems gets multiplied by the number of antennas used.

4G Technology1

2G and 3G systems used TDMA, FDMA and CDMA as channel access schemes. However, 4G uses OFDMA and other new technologies (Single Carrier FDMA, Interleaved FDMA, and Multi-carrier CDMA) instead of CDMA, which is used by all 3-G systems.
In OFDM, digital signal itself is split into different narrowband frequencies, modulated by data and then re-multiplexed to create the OFDM carrier. The main benefit of OFDM is high spectral efficiency, high immunity to RF interference, and lower multi-path distortion. Another key advantage of OFDM is that it dramatically reduces equalization complexity by enabling equalization in the frequency domain.
OFDM can be implemented efficiently by using Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) at the transmitter and receiver. FFT provides the channel response for each frequency. With MIMO, the channel response becomes a matrix and hence, MIMO-OFDM signals can be processed using relatively straightforward matrix algebra. Since complexity involved with space-time equalizers for MIMO-OFDM systems is less, they are preferred. Also, MIMO uses multipath propagation to its advantage.
IPv6 – IPv4 address exhaustion is likely to be in its final stages by the time of deployment of IPv6. Hence, for 4G technology, IPv6 has evolved to support a large number of devices. The packet structure for IPv6 is shown below.
IPv4 uses 32 bits and hence it is able to address 4294967269 possible addressable devices, whereas IPv4 uses 128 bits and is able to 3.4 X 1038 possible addressable devices
With IPv6, each device will have its own IP. Even if access point is changed, IP will remain same. IP based backbone or IP Core will allow everything to talk to each other, provided they follow the same protocol.
Smart Antennas
Smart or Intelligent antennas is also a multi-antenna concept which allows the radio beam to follow the user. This is done through beam forming which temporarily improve gain. They are also used to provide transmit and/or receive diversity.
Smart antennas in 4G Technology
Adhoc Networks
Adhoc networks refer to spontaneous self organisation of network of devices, not necessarily connected to internet. 4G will create hybrid wireless networks using adhoc networks. Intelligent routing to determine shortest path with least powers are used, i.e, data packets are sent through paths with minimal power requirements.
Adaptive Modulation And Coding (AMC)
Adaptive modulation and coding mechanism reacts to instantaneous variations in channel conditions and accordingly modify the modulation & coding formats. Based on feedback from the receiver, response of the channel is estimated and depending upon the channel conditions, AMC allows different data rates to be assigned to different users. Channel statistics aid the transmitter and receiver to optimize system parameters such as modulation, coding, bandwidth, channel estimation filters, and automatic gain control.
Adaptive Hybrid ARQ
Efficient and reliable Medium access control (MAC) layer performance is extremely important for reliable link performance over the lossy wireless channel. TO achieve this, an automatic retransmission and fragmentation mechanism called automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is used, wherein the transmitter breaks up packets received from higher layers into smaller sub packets, which are transmitted sequentially. If a sub packet is received incorrectly, the transmitter is requested to retransmit it. This mechanism introduces time diversity into the system due to its capability to recover from noise, interference, and fades.
Improved Modulation
Previous standards used Phase-shift keying, more spectrally efficient modulation schemes such as 64-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is being used for 4G systems.
Software Defined Radio (SDR)
SDR is key to 4G systems. Software Defined Radio allows some of the functional modules of radio equipment like modulation/demodulation, signal generation, coding and link-layer protocols, that used to be traditionally implemented in special purpose hardware to be implemented in modifiable software or firmware operating on programmable processing technologies. Since 4G is all about convergence of diverse wireless standards, this can be efficiently realized using SDR technology
3G Vs 4G 

Parameters
3G
4G
Network Architecture
cell-based
Integration of various wireless technologies
Speeds
384 Kbps to 2 Mbps
100 Mbps to 1 Gbps
Frequency Band
Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz)
Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)
Bandwidth
5-20 MHz
100 MHz (or more)
Switching Scheme
Circuit and Packet
Packet
Access Technologies
W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge
OFDM and MC-CDMA
IP
No. of air link protocols
All IP (IP6.0)
4-G Systems
WirelessMAN-Advanced
o      IMT-A compliant version of WiMAX or WiMAX 2 based on IEEE 802.16m
o        WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is an IP based, wireless broadband access technology 
o        WirelessMAN is under development.
o        Present implementation of WiMAX does not comply with 4G specifications
o        Uses OFDM in uplink and downlink.
o        Mobile WiMAX, IEEE 802.16e standard offers peak data rates of 128 Mbit/s downlink and 56 Mbit/s uplink over 20 MHz wide channel.
4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) Advanced
·        IMT-A complaint version of LTE, also referred to as E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) or E-UTRAN(Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network).
·               UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) was introduced in 3GPP Release 8 which supports data rates of up to 300 Mbps (4×4 MIMO) and up to 150 Mbps (2×2 MIMO) in the downlink and up to 75 Mbps in the uplink. Release 10 of LTE is likely to approach IMT-A, download upto 1 Gbps and upload upto 500 Mbps.
·               Uses OFDMA for downlink & Uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for uplink.
·               Uses 64QAM modulation
·               Uses MIMO and beam forming with up to 4 antennas
·               All IP Network
Moving Beyond 4G
4G is not the end of all. “5G Technology” is already in research arena and is bound to up the data rate further.5G is going to alter the way of our usage of our cellphones; may replace our Desktop PCs/laptops. Coupled with innovations being done in the field of smart sensors, 5G mobile phones with extremely high data rates, IP core, and world-wide coverage will offer features which have not imagined so far.
Currently 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification, however, it is being used in research papers and standardization bodies for the future wireless standards.
Lets Welcome 5G with a great speed to download 1GB in just one sec.. !! Updates will continue to flow… 🙂

 

 

 

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